Meta-analysis reviews of racial trauma research unequivocally demonstrate symptoms that mirror post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD):
- Mental Health.
- Psychologically, racial trauma can cause symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
- Arousal: higher reports of somatization when distressed (e.g., stomach aches, headaches, rapid heartbeat).
- Anger and disruptive behavior: more behavioral problems in children and teens
- Chronic Stress: depression, anxiety, low motivation.
- Hypervigilance: reduced ability to trust or form social connections.
- Avoidance: less willingness to take academic risks, higher school drop-out rates after racial discrimination is perceived.
These negative psychological outcomes are not only present in adults, but have been found to appear as in children as early as 12 years of age. However, the toll of racial trauma and stress is not limited to psychological outcomes. The negative effects of racial trauma also affects physical health outcomes. These symptoms are often exacerbated by lack of access to adequate medical services.
Physical symptoms can include:
- Physical pain
- Cardiovascular Disease
- Hypertension, with spikes in blood pressure following exposure to racist stimuli; blood pressure remains elevated after.
- Respiratory Complications
- Higher Allostatic Load (the wear and tear of the body caused by chronic stress) When the body is in a state of distress, it activates the stress response system, which helps us fight or get out of the stressful situations (a.k.a. fight, flight, or freeze). However, when experiences of stress are consistent and chronic, the stress response system becomes taxed and hormones can be unbalanced, exacerbating the physical illnesses and conditions listed above.
- Digestive issues
APA (American Psychological Association) Guide on the Effects of Stress on the Body
Racism, racial discrimination, and trauma: a systematic review of the social science literature, K.Kirkinis, August 2018.
Mental Health and Black Patients: Survival and Stigma